Magazine Spread Research

After picking my article and reading over it, I was ready to do some research on magazine spreads for inspiration and good practice, so I decided to start at simple, then casually build up to more complex designs, my idea here is to see some systems that are string that I could build on to fit within my article, I was also looking into how the designer has accomplished interpreting the article through visual systems and images.

Brick Magazines

very simplistic design it is straight forward and easy to read, it has a nice imagery and easy to read text I’m not to sure what typeface they have used, but its a reminder to me that simple design in it self can be beautiful, I don’t need to throw everything at it, it can be nice and subtle, I also like how the text stretches over four columns on the grid system and makes the text easier to read I want to experiment more with the block of texts and how they are laid out on the page. link – http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/brick-magazine-issue-three-catalogue-180317

Fish Bowl Magazine

I really like the colour pallet in these spreads they compliment each other very well, the imagery is beautiful and it is what really attracted me to the spreads and I do like the simplicity of the texts and heading but I am not to sure about the over size of the letter at the start of the paragraphs but the full magazine is really great and really worth a look heres the link – https://www.behance.net/gallery/28138691/Fish-Bowl

Matt Magazine

I really like the lines system in these spreads and they feature through thew hole magazine which shows its a navigation system, I am a massive fan of this and planning to experiment with this in my design but starting with the same build up Matt has used then building on it but the magazine is really friendly and well designed and you could see more if you click the link -http://mattwilley.co.uk/YouCanNow-Magazine

Innovation is a Process Discovery

Im a fan of the text overlapping the image I think its a very strong effect and makes the design very modern, I also love the opacity over the imagery that comes through the text. I like the negative space the design sits in its very confident and think the designer has a good understanding of space but I am noticing a theme of text stretching over 4 columns on the grid system which I would like to do for my layout I felt I didn’t experiment enough in my ephemera booklet and this is my chance now, I am more looking towards the detail of blocks of texts in my design. link – https://www.behance.net/gallery/11703901/Annual-Report

Bando Magazine

I like the colour pallet in both of these spreads and the use of text, how they over lap the images but one is more visual as another is for an article on Starbucks its different and allows me to question more because its not to the usual visual theme of Starbucks with using the yellow and black, but these two in my opinion are the strongest spreads of the magazine but there are plenty more great spreads in the magazine you can see more by clicking the link – http://www.haciendobando.com/vuelco.html

Things we like

This was more a website that show designs they consider as good practice but I managed to find two great spreads on it if I’m honest I was more interested in the typography they used but as well how they just used typography to fill that page and get the best out of the typography and the text on the spread, the design is very simple but effective, looking at the designs its come to my understanding that when doing a typography piece its great to explore the composition of where it will sit on the page. http://thethingswelike.org/din

Inspiration

I am more of a fan of the spread with the pink and blue I think its a very string design and has more to it than the other, I like how the blue dominates as it jumps out of the page and the white sinks into the background, which in my view gives the spread layers, I think is clever, I want to implement that into my spreads if its possible. https://inspirationhut.net/inspiration/54-fantastic-and-modern-magazine-design-layouts-to-inspire-you/2/

Reflection

This research has really helped me to understand how to achieve great spread designs, its also helped gain some ideas that I can take further in my project to better my practice I really want to experiment with simple colours and how I can use them to create layers and some sort of hierarchy system which sounds great fun to me so over all the detail will be simple within the actual design but have more depth within the colour system and experimentation within my work I feel, I also want the viewer to interact with my spread and not just glance over if I can achieve that I be happy.

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My Article Choice

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After reading each article I finally came to a decision and decided on the Trump article, it was the strongest for me and liked the tactical talk and the hole idea of the truth, the other reason why I chose this article is because its very popular subject at this time, its every where Trump has just been elected as president and all the attention is facing him which comes a lot of opinions and plenty of content and inspirations and this is for me,  it gives new depths to the project, its very hard to find middle ground with Trump its ether a string of hate or a lot of love for him so its very hard to find a well grounded opinion on him, the article itself is the theme ofthe truth and how Trump hides behind his scandals and tactics to allow him to change the subject in question which leaves many people with questions and many opinions which will be my focus.

TRUMP RESEARCH

the 45th president of America, born in 1964 (age 70)

Before his Presidency he was a businessman and a tv personality in the US.

websites and articles I researched to have a better understanding of trump and the content around him.

http://www.trump.com

http://www.independent.co.uk/topic/DonaldTrump

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/jan/20/donald-trump-first-100-days-president-daily-updates

https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/topics/78080d81-2849-497e-bc3a-bf364626456b/donald-trump

As you can see there is so much content on Tump that it simply forces an opinion on him and its only a matter of preference at the minute because there is short space of him being president but looking through the internet helped me look and understand what the internet thinks about him and how he has already been painted in the global eye which to me he’s ether a joke or very much liked and many people have questions about him and his tactics. I also realise the theme of the article is about the truth and people are trying to put the puzzles together of what Trump been saying to see if he’s actually painting the right picture.

Reflection 

I think this is a very fun article to choose and I can play with a lot, I might base the entire design around Trump and the truth and make some puzzles out of the article maybe but what I am very excited where I could take this just sat to jump in the reason why I didn’t do to much research into trump himself is because the media has so much on him and so many different opinions on him so I didn’t want to be swayed by that i just wanted the article it self to speak to  me so thats why I done some very basic research.

Poster&App Ephemera Research

After my animation process I moved on to creating the ephemera poster and flyer, before starting I was also required to create an icon logo for our app that allowed people to learn what services were provided and where their nearest service provider was. I started by doing some poster research and looked towards ‘Behance’ and ‘It’s nice that’.

I tried looking at some healthcare posters, but most were very boring and didn’t seem to have any creativity, they were just full of information that could easily be ignored, which I didn’t want for my design, I wanted something simple and attractive with very little information as possible so it was easy to grasp and straight to the point.

I managed to find some great examples of minimalist posters on Behance, these are a great collection from a movie festival, some from advertising and others are products, here are some of my favourite examples from the collection they are great –

I really like the 3D effect on one of the posters its really interesting how layering colours can create this effect but again I am more interested in the way they used simple shapes or lines to create a effective imagery that could attract a crowd, they are mainly used to be satisfying to look at, here is the link that feature many more check them out – https://www.behance.net/gallery/49687435/Poster-Collection

I then wanted to look at something completely opposite, I wanted to see how I then could have expressive typography while using it in a poster format and how I can then expand on it on my design to see how I can mix the the two styles creating a minimalist expression, I  love these designs, they are great and I’ve learnt the logo was created by the amazing graphic designer Paula Scher, I also grabbed some posters and ephemera I liked which can be seen below, but they are designed for ‘The Republic theatre’ but here is the link have a look you can find some great inspiration here – https://www.behance.net/gallery/8043101/The-Public-Theater

Interactive digital poster

I found this more interesting ephemera idea, that was posted on ‘Its nice that’ it was made by a design studio called Feixen the digital poster actually has hidden musical features inside and can be explored by playing with the design.The design is modern very easy on the eye but the interactive side brings the poster design to life its really something, it’s new and brings forth that modern age design I really consider this a great practice and I would be open to experiment further in my career, here is some examples but follow up on the website to really see how these digital posters interact and work –   http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/studio-feixen-graphic-design-030317

 Aurelio Sanchez

I still wanted to see how I could create some sort of style to be provided with the ephemera and still be linked back to the animation so I looked and found another great project produced by graphic designer Aurelio Sanchez’s who uses a minimal style to create the branding talks and lectures from the SIW but uses inspiration from brutalism, here are some examples, they contain great work –

Aurelio_Sanchez_SFIW_ITs_Nice_That_7

APP Research

I was asked by Ellie to help her with the app we were producing, we agreed that I would create the icon or logo for the app, she would create the content and collaborate in the end to finilise everything. I began where every one else does with research and found some great examples from Behance, I just wanted to find the basic style of icons and how most were created and how simple the design could be but these are some great examples of app icons and how they were created, in this I have feature some great examples and some of the process of how the new ‘WhatsApp’ icon was created, here are my examples and the link – https://www.behance.net/gallery/20382043/Best-App-Icons-by-Ramotion

 

Whatsup icon

This was the process for the new ‘WhatsApp’ icon which is a great project and is very well designed, here is some images and the link –  https://www.behance.net/gallery/38386561/The-new-WhatsApp

Reflection

Poster research help me to understand how I can achieve simple yet effective design by using minimalist style by collaborating that with expressive type can create an effective but simple style and can create a design with simple imagery and adding context by adding some very simple text or can be achieve by using a very clever image but there is a very fine line in communicating information in away I do understand, as for my app research it helped me understand how I can show the context of the app using wordplay or by what the app does and its name but there are many other ways to venture down depending on the app but I believe I have found a effective way to create my app icon and  be ready to start my ephemera design.

Animation Research

now we had a storyboard and a basic idea on what we wanted are animation to look like I decided to move towards searching and looking at animations that ben produced on the same area of are subject as well looking at some for their individuality, the aim in this was to try gain some inspiration, my idea was to seen what has been done before and try see how we can take elements of some and try put a twist on them to see where we could take it, it was was for me to see how you can take a serious matter and put a friendly twist on it so its not to horrible to watch or take in but these are some great examples I found looking through youtube and the internet.

How the Government solved healthcare

This animation is more about the American healthcare crisis and how it was solved by the American Government.

The animation it self is abstract which already makes me more comfortable watching, its simple and fun, I really like the texture feel the animation has and is my favourite part about the animation, the font used in the animation is loose but easy to read another great aspect about this animation is I like the way they animated some ones story and makes it feel like someones telling it to you which I feel is very effective way communicating to some one information.

The Girl Effect

This animation is about the abuse of under age girls and how we can help brake the cycle of this by helping them try get through education to help them gain a head start in life, I really enjoyed watching this animation and think its very creative.

Starting with the music its friendly which gives a slight distraction from the serious message but I think its more used as white noise really on top of the animation, I really like the texturised font and imagery they used which fits well against the white background, I really love the level of play between the symbolic imagery against the type in this animation its really effective and would like to try incorporate that into are animation I think it would really benefit are animation and fit well with are style, the animation I felt flowed wonderfully and just all supported each other and the three colour pallet was nice and easy to take in of the orange against the white and black, I really consider this great practice.

A True Story 

Screen Shot 2017-03-21 at 22.49.13

https://www.behance.net/gallery/47960519/A-True-Story-Andrea

 

This animation is about a company who helps people find their perfect homes, but its more of an advert but I really like the general style of this animation and how the combined two styles in a way.

I really enjoyed the over all style of the animation how they mixed the textures with the digital loose lines and illustrations, there wasn’t to much type in this but had lots of dialog in it, which gave it narrative but I was more focused on how they mixed the two styles together really that was the main purpose in this animation but still great to watch.

Health Care Twitter 

The animation is more infographics than anything but I thought it was helpful to include it even though my group found it but I wanted to go back look at it further and it allowed me then to see where we could take this as a group, one option we had.

It was very digital based had no texture or marks in it just clean easy to read imagery and font, the over all style was fun and easy going from first glance and just allowed you to really see the information in a visual manner against the text which an infographic should do, the illustrations and animations was very short and simple but was effective because of it because it didn’t grab to much attention so the viewer wouldn’t loose sight of the text, this animation was more just a simply made animation but was very easy watching it.

Changing Education 

This is how the education works and how this man preposes it can change for the future generation but this animation really does have a different way which is clever and its more for me to see other ways of taking are animation and how we can go about that.

Its narrate based, I think its animated over a man presenting this to an audience which is the first twist rather than just having an voice over, the illustrations themselves make the animation easy going but really illuminates what the mans message and visions, this overall is a strong animation but it was presented in a more simplistic way which was very great to watch and consider with my animation

Reflection

Researching and looking at these animations has shown mw what animations are at now and how they can push new ways of communicating to their chosen audiences, these animations has helped me understand the level of play and techniques you could use together to really make a animation come to life and bring forth that message in ether powerful yet friendly ways or even just to communicate stories, this research has also allowed me to consider how I can push my animation further in the level play it presents and how it talks to my viewers, I hope I can reach this level with my group and try communicate are message in a creative way that speaks to our audience but its most importantly inspired me to look at new was I can explore my media as a graphic designer.

NHS Choose Well research

I  researched to find if anything has been produced before on this subject/issue, to see what has been created and how we can improve it, I looked around the NHS websites and couldn’t find to much, till I came across the NHS wales website and found ‘choose well’.

Choose Well – helps you decide which medical attention you need for when you get ill or need emergency treatment and allows the NHS give the best positive care for the people.

‘Choose Well’ has its own website which you can visit @choosewell.org.uk and has its own self help number – 0845 66 47 as well as having a app that can help you understand what services are there and what they are.


Choose Well Logo

I started looking at the logo which is a thermometer with five different colours in it and starts from blue to red which to me signalises the emergency level but I really didn’t have a full understanding what it was about until my mum came and told me that they are the colour codes A&E use to determine the ranking system for patients to be seen the colour is as followed –

Red – seen immediately

Orange – within 10 minutes

yellow – within 1 hour

Greens – within 4 hours

Blue – when able

This helped me understand the logo and at first I thought it was a clever idea to use the colours as a main part in the logo, but I feel that the logo could have been produced better in my own view, maybe try different shapes or actually use a common theme of hearts I feel it was produced fast and less thought towards the presentation of the logo which disappoints me.

The website is vey basic and bright but is easy to read and not to hard to navigate through, I feel again the general over style and design of ‘Choose well’ is very boring and feels like the subject it’s trying to create awareness is boring it self makes me want to forget more then investigate more.

WebisteI then managed to find a leaflet template which also keeps within the style.

leaflet

On the website I was able to download a poster design, this again is simple easy to read I also think that the two languages take up to much space and could be avoided if they made a pair instead of the one maybe this is due to budgeting but the design really does bother me and would I like to think we could produce better.


poster desgin

I managed to find the app in the App Store and downloaded it, I wanted to experience the app its design, the flow and how easy it was to understand. I just wanted to see how it felt in my hand, in my opinion the app is the best part of ‘choose well’ campaign is that the design seems to be better, it flows nice and its easy to read I really thought the map system on helping you find your near by service was really helpful and certainly  would be helpful in future use but the design was simple, easy to read and was helpful which is what I wanted from the app but here are some images below of the app and my experience using it.

IMG_1317

I wanted to see how this design is presented in the A&E departments but didn’t find to much but was only able to fine a leaflet by the notice board with a fridge sticker inside which is a good idea which allows you to always keep it in a place you use daily and can remind you here is an image of me using it on my fridge.

Reflection

It was great to find a design that already exists because it’s a starting point and can always be improved, looking at this design has given me an insight into what is expected and can give many ideas and there is so much room for improvement, I think the colour code use is clever because it falls in with A&E but I think the logo and the general look and theme is boring it wasn’t designed well and makes me want to forget the design and the information, the best feature about ‘choose well’ was the app it was easy to use and helpful especially the map system helping me understand the services and where they are located, it allowed me to find a easy route to the locations to, but over all I feel there is much to build on and as a group we could produce better.

NHS / A&E  Research 

As everyone agreed to go with my idea with the ‘NHS A&E under pressure’ as they are in danger of closing down. I did some in depth research to really understand what is happening and what problems they are facing, in order for me to know the problem and try present a solution to my team that we can work with.

A&E under pressure  

Originally we decided to merge A&E and the NHS  as one and create a new campaign that showed that they have become one and started to really consider what A&E staff and patients need to stay functional and still provide great effective service, but after pitching this idea to David, he wasn’t impressed with the thought of rebranding , he more aimed us towards creating awareness of the pressure the NHS and A&E’s are under and how we could create something that could help people stop putting pressure onto the A&E departments.

Scan

We now  had a direction and an idea so we started to create a mood map of everything we knew and needed to know about A&E, we also generated ideas on them to so we had a starting point.

Research 

Thanks to our mind mapping session I now had an idea that I needed to be researching and what information I needed to grab to help support the team with ideas.

I started by researching general issues about the NHS and then started to look towards A&E and look at what services they provided, what they advise and how they work then travelling onto researching on the other services that are available and their roll in the healthcare system.

NHS ISSUES

Issue 1 – staff

The NHS is facing so many cases of understaffed A&E departments, this is due the Uk leaving the EU and could force staff from the EU to leave and go back to their countries, which means around 80,000 of them leaving the UK emergency department, not just this but most UK student nurses are leaving the country to work abroad so there will be a big gap in staff, when older nurses leave and are forced to prolong the process. They also have stopped advisories to students which seem to see the drop of students wanting to take the healthcare role in their education period and is turning into a big problem because the departments are simply understaffed.

Issue 2 – funding

Funding is a major part in the NHS, which seems to be all going to waste on resources that are not being used, they are estimated to be forking out around 30 billion a year by the year 2020 if things carry on the way they are now.

Issue 3 – expectations

The NHS previous focus was to tackle diseases and make sure people got effective service, they now have to face more expectations due to their growth, they now handle things all over the board, such as Healthcare management, contraception, mental health and social care they have to handle this as well a growing population, people living longer which has lead to bigger number population and more health issues with the elderly.

Issue 4 – growing population

After all the costs they are facing, the NHS still have to consider the growing population which doesn’t seem to be slowing down any time soon, but it also has effect on how many people are needing ongoing treatment which conjure up a lot of funds to do and big part of where the funds are going from the NHS.

Issue 5 – A&E departments

More and more people are visiting A&E every year, in many cases they have minor injuries which is stretching the ability of A&E to function and cope, it is at tipping point and has in fact coursed the NHS to close down some departments in the UK which could potentially have a knock on effect if things carry on.

A&E and Other services

A&E – also know as ‘emergency departments’ or ‘casualty departments’ normally deal with genuine life threatening emergencies as the list follows –

loss of consciousness

•acute confused state and fits that are not stopping

•persistent, severe chest pain

•breathing difficulties

severe bleeding that cannot be stopped

•severe allergic reactions

•severe burns or scalds

The departments give 24 hour access to professionally qualified staff in all areas of medical attention including paramedics, A&E nurses, diagnostic radiographers, A&E reception staff, porters, healthcare assistants and emergency medicine doctors.

GP’s – are normally trained to deal holistically with a range of problems a person could have. They are highly skilled in diagnosis of the early stages of a condition, they know where and when to refer you to higher form of treatment when required they can choose ether to treat, refer a patient with any emotional and mental condition, common procedures include –

•one-to-one consultations

•drug prescribing

•diagnostics (near-patient testing)

•checking patients’ test results and advocating the right course of action to take

•running clinics, for example, for chronic diseases such as asthma and diabetes

•implementing preventive initiatives such as prescribing incentive schemes, supporting carers and helping patients to be active partners in the management of their own health

•safeguarding vulnerable children and adults by prompt action

•carrying out general practice audits to improve systems and outcomes of care as part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) target system

•improving patients’ experience of the GP practice by asking them for feedback

•doing official tasks such as signing repeat prescriptions and death certificates, filling out statements of fitness for work and preparing letters and reports

•being involved in decisions about upgrading equipment and premises

•undertaking professional learning and development and preparing for revalidation (every five years)

Minor injuries and urgent care centres – focus on developing ambulating care in a dedicated medical facility outside of A&E, Urgent care centres treat great injuries or illnesses requiring immediate care, service they provide –

•Sprains and strains

•Broken bones

•Wound infections

•Minor burns

•Minor head injuries

•Insect and animals bites

•Minor eye injuries

•Injuries to the back, stomach and chest

NHS helpline 111  – is a none-emergency helpline, its easy, fast and free to call, it allows        access to a processionally qualified advisor who are supported by professional

healthcare staff, they will ask questions and based off those questions can direct you on the best action to take.

(NHS also have a website that explains everything @ NHS.CO.UK)

A&E Main problems

A&E face many problems everyday but they are recently under so much pressure and now are at breaking point, I wanted to know what they really facing and how I could find a solution to their problem I started my research off on the computer then try getting some interviews but ethics got in the way, these are the problems I manage to find –

•A&E near enough at Armageddon as they simply don’t have enough beds to keep up with demand of patients coming through the door.

•Frail and elderly pack in as GP’s struggle to cope.

•Half forgotten patients over flow rooms

•Not enough staff to cope with the never ending patients coming through their doors on a daily basis.

These issues seem to suggest the same that there are just to many people visiting A&E with minor injuries that could be seen some where else and just are adding to the daily problems together with A&E generate now which is not an ideal scenario.

SUMMERY 

Problem

To many overflowing A&E departments with minor injuries that could use other services.

Solution

To educate people on the other services that are provided in the UK so it doesn’t lead to wasted resources and a overflow in A&E departments.

Reflection

The NHS itself faces so many problems with budget and resources which then has an impact on the A&E departments, some departments are being forced to shut down to save money, A&E don’t face that problem alone, I learnt that A&E is under so much pressure, due to the ever growing population that it simply can’t handle all the patients it’s requiring, the overflow of patients are pushing staff and resources to braking point where that they can’t cope, they cant provide efficient treatment to their more severe cases due to all the minor patients coming through the door. On top of that the departments are understaffed and have many complaints that to redevelop frequently they and doesn’t get fixed. I think it would benefit the NHS and the A&E departments if we tried to create and animation that could educate or create awareness on the other services that are provided in the UK such as NHS helpline, GP’s, walk in centres and so on so these people can make an educated decision and pick the correct facilitates which will to hopefully then relieve the pressure on A&E departments.

Atelier Populaire – Research 

May 1968 was the start for a graphic uprising in France, there was anonymous posters all over the streets of Paris these posters were being produced by workers and students who were protesting against the everyday employment and poverty that was rising under the consecutive government of Charles de Gaulle. There was no formal organisations behind the uprising, but these groups were normally made up from everyday people that had become simply pushed to far. In Paris on May the 16th 1968 students and faculty took over the Ecole des b Beaux Arts, to create the studio known as the Atelier Populaire in translation ‘the Popular Workshop’ this small organisation became responsible for the graphic posters, they produced them out of the studio by using only ink and a silkscreen printing, the method was to use political graphic art to portray a message and wanted to gain more arms for their cause in fact these posters were even quoted to be ‘“weapons in service of the struggle” by Atelier Populaire. Their method was to produce as many posters as they could to scream their messages, these posters would be put all over the streets of Paris, but for many at Atelier popular that was the soul purpose and what I like is that the artists till this day haven’t come forward and tried to claim their work and many Atelier Populaire hoped the posters to be worthless ,discardable, just cheap productions. It is estimated that Atelier Populaire created around 200 to 300 images and produced hundred to thousands of posters, their reasons for choosing a poster format was that it was the only way of communicating without the interference from Gaulle’s government, but these posters are now very powerful pieces in today graphic design and very hard to find, they are only found in France by either booksellers or in flea markets in Paris.

 Images of Atelier Populaire workshop

 

Poster

Some great examples of Atelier Populaire posters

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‘The title of this poster is Free Information, and its double entendre is breathtaking. Is the poster a poke at a self-censored press that tows the government line and offers people false “Free Information”? Or does the graphic portray a free press held hostage and in need of liberation? Note that even the cord on the microphone is tied in a knot, implying the choking off of reliable news reporting.’

jn03_018

‘In order to contain the widening popular revolt, pro-government goon squads were formed composed of right-wing workers and off duty policemen. They continually assaulted demonstrators and organizers, infiltrated and broke up political meetings and rallies, and attempted by wholesale thuggery to intimidate sympathizers of the uprising. This poster mocked one aggressive right-wing group, the Civic Action, for being “Fascist Vermin.’

Reference: http://www.art-for-a-change.com/Paris/paris2.html

 

Reflection

What has Atelier Populaire shown me? 

Atelier Populaire has shown me how communication can be produced imeadatly, that all it has to do is express and communicate, it doesn’t have to be perfect all the time that it can be low budget and cheap, that it can be made with raw materials and still have an impact on the out side world. It also has shown me how creative people can be resourceful, think on their feet and gives them a voice, it has also shown me that some small things can be pushed into greater things, another aspect Atelier Popular has shown me is how not all work should be claimed that it only belongs with that period and its made to be discarded which has some attraction to me, the idea that one man took time to produce hundreds of posters with ink and a silkscreen really is phenomenal, to me reading and seeing images from Atelier Populaire shows a more raw side to graphic communication and in my eyes it is truly refreshing to see it that it has more of a human touch to it.

What did I like about Atelier Populaire? 

I really like the style of the Atelier Populaire, I think the loose cartoony style with that feel of the streets really captures a raw feeling, I think it has some powerful imagery within the work, with a great humanist typography it really adds to the poster designs gives its a sense of a human within the design, rather than traditional printing ways. I also like the thought that these posters were produced just for the revolution that was made cheaply for that purpose and that the artists who produced the posters haven’t come forward and claimed their work which shows the true intentions and beliefs of the artists of that time in France, but I view these posters as great pieces of graphic communication.